Fundraising results, new book uploader, send to Kindle update and improved Top Zlibrarians

Fundraising results, new book uploader, send to Kindle update and improved Top Zlibrarians

Oct 03, 2019
22k görüntülemeler


Today we want to announce the successful completion of the fundraising and introduce 3 updates. First, our team wants to thank all of you for active participation in the fundraising campaign. The goal was successfully achieved! It should be reminded that users who have supported us during this period received 1 month of unlimited downloads. Congrats!

And the first update we want to tell you is the improved version of the book uploader. Now you can upload many files at once! After uploading a file, you need to fill in the necessary information about the book and add a cover. Allowed formats are txt, pdf, fb2, epub, lit, lrf, mobi, odt, rtf, snb, djv, djvu, azw3, azw. Finally, large files can be uploaded too. As this feature is still under development so some small problems may occur. But we will try to fix it as soon as possible.

The second update related to the option send to Kindle. We want to draw your attention that our address has changed so you need to re-add our new address to the While list on your kindle. You will find the address at this link (for example, km1744*** To make it easier to start using this option we have created a special page with the instructions .

The latest update is about inaccuracies in calculating users rating. The Top Zlibrarians ( page now displays a separate rating for users who suggested the most corrections and a rating for those who have uploaded the most books. On the same page you will find the general rating.

That's all for today. Thanks for reading our blog and testing the new updates!

what I would like is a way to send corrections to epub files. I sometimes edit typos in Calibre Editor in my books.
04 October 2019 (15:03) 
Thank you for the downloads this month.
07 October 2019 (11:15) 
Thank you for the updates and the additional month. Will you be having any additional fund raisers
07 October 2019 (16:02) 
Could you tell which author naming format we should use: "John Smith"? "Smith, John"?, "J. Smith"? Same for titles, etc.
Also, add a feature to remove duplicates.
08 October 2019 (00:08) 
I would like to submit a proposal in regard to the removal of duplicates. Where can I send it to ?
08 October 2019 (01:38) 
Paul Zadok
So encouraging...
09 October 2019 (10:47) 
I have been looking for 2 books of my research area- Primatology. Can anybody please upload the books?
1. Primate Research and Conservation in the Anthropocene.
2. Studying Primates.
09 October 2019 (12:57) 
Addisalem Mulugeta Asfaw
How can i help
10 October 2019 (17:53) 
Addisalem Mulugeta Asfaw
How can i help
10 October 2019 (17:53) 
Thanks for the books about Gauguin!
10 October 2019 (19:55) 
David Izabal
10 October 2019 (22:15) 
Him by Pierre Alex Jeanty
11 October 2019 (01:20) 
Thanks for your support
11 October 2019 (10:17) 
Thanks for the good job! I would like to request for a book that I've been searching for for a while now. The title is Catching Foxes by John Henderson. Can anybody help? Thanks
12 October 2019 (18:39) 
Book request please.

The Wahls Protocol: Cooking for Life. The Revolutionary Modern Paleo Plan to Treat All Chronin Autoimmune Conditions.

By Terry Wahls, MD. with Eve Adamson

Thank you!
13 October 2019 (04:57) 
Amber Pond
Thank you for everyone's hard work and donations.
14 October 2019 (05:20) 
Is there any way to request books?
14 October 2019 (07:48) 
Thanks for the effort!
14 October 2019 (10:23) 
Ajay Chander R.
Thank you for your efforts
14 October 2019 (20:48) 
Is there a way to request a book for addition to the library?
18 October 2019 (16:27) 
I have been looking for "The New ASEAN in Asia Pacific and Beyond" 2018 by Shaun Narine. Can anybody help? Thanks. please send to
19 October 2019 (17:44) 
Thank you guys!
20 October 2019 (14:30) 
Think before removing duplicates. They can have different file types, editions, or quality of print.
20 October 2019 (18:28) 
Yang Wanxi
Where should I click if I want to donate by Wechat or Alipay?
21 October 2019 (15:59) 
I want to make a donation but can’t seem to manage your online donation process. Is there a way to make a donation by simply sending you a check. Thanks.
22 October 2019 (21:44) 
Btw, how to active Files Converter ? Because you said there is Files Converter for the Premium donatur. How to use it ?
23 October 2019 (07:14) 
Well then download limit is reduced to 10. It was 20 while like social media accounts.
24 October 2019 (17:40) 
Please make it possible to search for publishers and sort the books by years released by the publisher.
26 October 2019 (12:19) 
Thanks for all
27 October 2019 (19:15) 
is the site currently down? I can't seem to get any results when searching
27 October 2019 (21:58) 
No result when searching
27 October 2019 (22:30) 
you guys are doing great especially for some of us in Africa
28 October 2019 (12:32) 
Thanks for your support
28 October 2019 (16:27) 
Thank you for all you do to serve the readers of the world!
28 October 2019 (17:50) 
Thanks! for great job
28 October 2019 (20:51) 
Dr. Grant
29 October 2019 (01:36) 
29 October 2019 (06:07) 
couldn’t manage without you guys your brilliant and I am happy to donate anytime you ask.I also like that when I want a series of stories I can donate when ever I like to get extra downloads.I am sure others would benefit from doing that as well.
31 October 2019 (15:46) 
Couldyou please add this book " internet of things- a hands on approach arshdeep bagha and vijay madisetti"
31 October 2019 (17:13) 
Book requests:
The Cold Way Home by Julia Keller
The Last Widow by Karin Slaughter
Thank You!!!!!!!!
01 November 2019 (01:07) 
Thanks a lot, bud!
02 November 2019 (23:50) 
Hi guys! Thanks very much again for all your hard work. I will definitely continue to support your efforts by donating whenever I can.

My first request is to have a way so that users could respond to the questions and comments of other users posted on your blogs.

Second request is to have a way to rate the QUALITY of the files uploaded, so that your bandwidth is not wasted on downloading poor-quality files.

Thank you again for your OUTSTANDING work, and best wishes for your continued success.
05 November 2019 (01:37) 
I'm extremely happy about what you and the team do, it's so good even for humanity in general. Anyway we can help just let us know
07 November 2019 (13:09) 
I wonder if this new improvement with uploading is why recent additions are so overwhelmed by romance/soft porn books? The recently added option used to be so awesome to peruse. I miss it. I no longer use it because of this lean to soft porn/romance. Boring now whereas before such glorious writing from people all over the world! If it is a name I cannot pronounce, I read it. That is gone. Fortunately, you all offer such a great resource in other ways. I am thanking you for the long time when Recently Added was a gem.
10 November 2019 (16:21) 
Hello. When I upload books or articles, could I see the download statistics of the books I have uploaded? Thank you in advance for your reply.
18 November 2019 (17:44) 
Eric M. Brown
I am not able to make searches through Everytime there is the message "Cant create PDO instance of Sphinx." Please fix this technical problem.
21 December 2019 (21:33) 
How can we recommend tags or categories for books that don't have a category.

01 January 2020 (19:49) 
Is this the place to ask for help? I didn’t by seem to be able to download books right now. When I click on the book, it asks me if I want to download but when I click on “download” nothing happens. I am using Apple iphone6 iOS 13.
07 January 2020 (21:37) 
Is there a file size limit? I was able to upload a couple PDF files, but when I tried uploading a 3rd I was unable to. Created an account to ask this, and see if there is an alternate way to upload textbooks. Sharing is Caring! :)
02 March 2020 (17:43) 
Mary J Van Dyke
I am attempting to upgrade my account via an amazon gift card voucher, So far I have sent the info to your address at three times in the past 4 hours. My account has NOT been upgraded as of yet. My emails have gotten NO replies. I am NOT pleased.
06 March 2020 (21:06) 
A very useful page for all that do research from home
20 May 2020 (09:28) 
I have books downloaded from Z-Library that I am unable to remove/delete. How can I do this?
25 October 2020 (00:29) 
How to upload a better version of an uploaded book???
09 June 2021 (13:37) 
هل تحتاج إلى تمويل شخصي أو تجاري أو استثماري ، دون ضغوط وموافقة سريعة؟ إذا كانت الإجابة بنعم ، فاتصل بنا اليوم لأننا نقدم حاليًا قروضًا بسعر فائدة رائع بنسبة 3٪. تمويلنا مضمون وآمن. سعادة عملائنا هي قوتنا. قروض من 5،000 يورو - 1،000،000.00 يورو وجنيه يورو ، متاحة الآن للأعمال التجارية ، والقروض الشخصية ، وقروض المنزل ، والسفر والطلاب ، إلخ. لمزيد من المعلومات ، أرسل اقتراح قرض مفصل (مبلغ القرض ، الدولة ومدة القرض)

ضابط القرض.

مع أطيب التحيات

بريد الالكتروني؛

من الإثنين إلى السبت: 7:30 صباحًا - 6:30 مساءً {وقت المعالجة}.
الأحد: 12 ظهرًا - 6:30 مساءً {زمن المعالجة}
25 January 2022 (21:32) 
hosney amr
How to remove or edit a book that i have uploaded?
16 February 2022 (22:51) 
31 August 2022 (04:43) 
PART 1 Introduction and Basic Concepts We believe that prior to learning specific principles and procedures for analyzing and changing behavior, the student of applied behavior analysis should be introduced to the historical and conceptual foundations of the science. Basic knowledge and appreciation of the scientific and philosophical underpinnings of behavior analysis are requisites to a thorough understanding of the discipline's nature, scope, and potential. We also believe a preliminary overview of basic concepts, principles, and terminology makes the in-depth study of behavior analysis to follow more effective. The two chapters in Part 1 support these two beliefs. Chapter 1 describes the scientific, conceptual, and philosophical roots of applied behavior analysis and identifies the discipline's defining dimensions, characteristics, and overall goals. Chapter 2 defines the field's fundamental elementsbehavior and the environmental antecedent and consequential events that influence it-and introduces key terms and principles that describe relationships among these elements. 1 CHAPTER 1 Definition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis Key Terms applied behavior analysis (ABA) behaviorism explanatory fiction functional analysis functional relation hypothetical construct mentalism parsimony philosophie doubt determinism pragmatism empiricism radical behaviorism experiment replication experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) methodological behaviorism
31 August 2022 (04:49) 
A-1 ldentify the goals of behavior analysis as a science (i.e., description, prediction, control).
A-2 Explain the philosophical assumptions underlying the science of behavior analysis (e.g., selectionism, determinism,
parsimony, pragmatism).
A-3 Describe and explain behavior from the perspective of radical behaviorism.
A-4 Distinguish among behaviorism, the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and professional
practice guided by the science of behavior analysis.
A-5 Describe and define the dimensions of applied behavior analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley 1968).
31 August 2022 (04:53) 
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Definition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis 2
Basic Concepts and Principles 25
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Selecting and Defining Target Behaviors 48
Measuring Behavior 73
lmproving and Assessing the Quality of Behavioral Measurement 101
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Constructing and lnterpreting Graphie Displays of Behavioral Data 124
Analyzing Behavior Change: Basic Assumptions and Strategies 155
Reversai and Multielement Designs 171
Multiple Baseline and Changing Criterion Designs 193
Planning and Evaluating Applied Behavior Analysis Research 216
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Positive Reinforcement 252
Negative Reinforcement 287
Schedules of Reinforcement 301
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Positive Punishment 326
Negative Punishment 352
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Motivating Operations 372
Stimulus Control 395
Chapter 18 Verbal Behavior 412
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Equivalence-based Instruction 452
Engineering Emergent learning with Nonequivalence Relations 497
Imitation, Modeling, and Observational learning 527
Shaping 540
Chaining 557
Chapter 24
Chapter 25
Chapter 26
Extinction 582
Differential Reinforcement 595
Antecedent Interventions 613
xii Brief Contents
Chapter 27 Functional Behavior Assessment 628
Chapter 28
Chapter 29
Token Economy, Group Contingencies, and Contingency Contracting 656
Self -Management 681
Chapter 30
Chapter 31
Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change 714
Ethical and Professional Responsibi lit ies of Applied Behavior Analysts 758
31 August 2022 (04:57) 
1 Definition and Characteristics of Applied
Behavior Analysis 2
Science: Basic Characteristics and a Definition 3
A Brief History of Behavior Analysis 7
Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis 16
A Definition of Applied Behavior Analysis 19
Summary 23
2 Basic Concepts and Principles 25
Behavior 26
Environment 27
Respondent Behavior 28
Operant Behavior 32
Recognizing the Complexity of Human Behavior 41
Summary 44
3 Selecting and Defining Target Behaviors 48
Role of Assessment in Applied Behavior Analysis 48
Assessment Methods Used by Behavior Analysts 50
Assessing the Social Significance of Potential Target
Behaviors 59
Prîoritîzing Target Behaviors 64
Defining Target Behaviors 67
Settîng Crîteria for Behavîor Change 70
Summary 71
4 Measuring Behavior 73
Definition and Functions of Measurement in Applied
Behavîor Analysîs 74
Measurable Dimensions of Behavior 76
Methods for Measuring Behavîor 83
Measuring Behavior by Permanent Products 93
Measurement Tools 96
Selecting a Measurement Method 97
Summary 98
5 lmproving and Assessing the Quality
of Behavioral Measurement 101
lndicators of Trustworthy Measurement 102
Threats to Valid Measurement 103
Threats to Accurate and Reliable Measurement 106
Assessing the Accuracy and Reliability of Behavioral
Measurement 108
Using lnterobserver Agreement to Assess Behavioral
Measurement 111
Summary 120
6 Constructing and lnterpreting Graphie
Displays of Behavioral Data 124
Purpose and Benefits of Graphie Displays of
Behavioral Data 125
Graphs Used by Applied Behavior Analysts 127
Constructing Line Graphs 140
lnterpreting Graphically Displayed Behavioral
Data 145
Summary 152
7 Analyzing Behavior Change: Basic
Assumptions and Strategies 155
Concepts and Assumptions Underlying the Analysis
of Behavior 156
Components of Applied Behavior Analysis
Experiments 158
Steady State Strategy and Baseline Logic 162
Summary 168
8 Reversai and Multielement Designs 171
Reversai Design 171
Multielement Design 180
Summary 191
9 Multiple Baseline and Changing Criterion
Designs 193
Multiple Baseline Design 193
Changing Criterion Design 209
Summary 213
10 Planning and Evaluating Applied Behavior
Analysis Research 216
Importance of the lndividual Subject in Behavior
Analysis Research 216
Importance of Flexibility in Experimental
Design 220
Internai Validity: Controlling Potential Sources of
Confounding in Experimental Design 224
xiv Contents
Social Validity: Assessing the Applied Value of
Behavior Changes and the Treatments That
Accomplish Them 230
External Validity: Replicating Experiments
to Determine the Generality of Research
Findings 237
Evaluating Applied Behavior Analysis Research 241
Summary 247
11 Positive Reinforcement 252
Positive Reinforcement Defined 253
Classifying Reinforcers 263
Identifying Potential Reinforcers 268
Control Procedures for Posit ive Reinforcement 280
Using Reinforcement Effectively 282
Summary 285
12 Negative Reinforcement 287
Definition of Negative Reinforcement 287
Escape and Avoidance Contingencies 289
Characteristics of Negative Reinforcement 291
Applications of Negative Reinforcement 292
Changes in Teacher and Caregiver Responding as a
Function of Negative Reinforcement 298
Ethical Considerations in Using Negative
Reinforcement 299
Summary 299
13 Schedules of Reinforcement 301
Intermittent Reinforcement 301
Defining Basic Intermittent Schedules of
Reinforcement 302
Schedule Effects and Consistency of
Performance 303
Thinning Intermittent Reinforcement 309
Variations on Basic Intermittent Schedules of
Reinforcement 310
Compound Schedules of Reinforcement 315
Perspectives on Using Schedules of Reinforcement in
Applied Settings 320
Summary 321
14 Positive Punishment 326
Definition and Characteristics of Punishment 327
Factors That Influence the Effectiveness of
Punishment 331
Possible Side Effects and Problems with
Punishment 336
Positive Punishment Interventions 338
Guidelines for Using Punishment 343
Ethical Considerations Regarding the use of
Punishment 346
Concluding Perspectives 349
Summary 350
15 Negative Punishment 352
Time-Out from Positive Reinforcement
Defined 353
Time-Out Tactics for Applied Settings 354
Using Time-Out Effectively 356
Response Cost Defined 361
Response Cost Methods 365
Using Response Cost Effectively 366
Response Cost Considerations 367
Summary 368
16 Motivating Operations 372
Definition and Characteristics of Motivating
Operations 373
Distinguishing Between MOs and S0s 378
Unconditioned Motivating Operations (UMOs) 379
MOs for Punishment 381
Multiple Effects of MOs 382
Conditioned Motivating Operations (CMOs) 383
Relevance of MOs to the Generality of Treatment
Effects 391
Relevance of MOs to Applied Behavior Analysis 391
Summary 392
17 Stimulus Control 395
Stimulus Cont rol: Basic Concepts and Processes 396
Developing Stimulus Control 399
Transferring Stimulus Control 405
Summary 409
18 Verbal Behavior 412
Skinner's (1957) Analysis of Verbal Behavior 413
The Verbal Operants and Listener Behavior in More
Detail 417
Listener Behavior 430
Autoclitic Verbal Behavior 433
Applications of Skinner's (1957) Analysis of Verbal
Behavior 434
Applications to Language Assessment and
Intervention 435
The Loss of Verbal Behavior 444
Summary 446
19 Equivalence-based Instruction 452
Research Foundations and Core Concepts 453
Designing Equivalence-Based Instruction 467
Applications and Generality 481
Applications Stemming from Alternative
Theoretical Approaches to Relational
Responding 490
Concluding Remarks 494
Summary 494
20 Engineering Emergent Learning with
Nonequivalence Relations 497
What are Nonequivalence Relations? Why do
They Matter? 498
The Vocabulary of Nonequivalence
Relations 500
Some Types of Nonequivalence Relations 502
Theoretical Foundations 507
Nonequivalence Relations and Big-Picture
Psycho log ica I Constructs 512
Derived Stimulus Relations and General
Well-Being 517
A Final Comment 524
Summary 525
21 Imitation, Modeling, and Observational
Learning 527
Imitation 527
Modeling 533
Observational Learning 536
Summary 538
22 Shaping 540
Shaping Defined 541
Shaping Across and Within Response
Topographies 544
Increasing Shaping Efficiency 547
Clicker Training 548
Emerging Applications of Shaping 549
Shaping Guidelines 551
Learning to Shape 553
Summary 555
23 Chaining 557
Behavior Chain Defined 558
Rationale for Chaining 559
Establishing Behavior Chains with Task
Analysis 559
Behavior Chaining Methods 563
Choosing a Chaining Method 570
Contents xv
Disrupting and Breaking Behavior Chains 570
Troubleshooting Chains 574
Factors Affecting the Performance of Behavior
Chains 576
Summary 578
24 Extinction 582
Extinction Defined 583
Extinction Procedures 585
Secondary Effects of Extinction 586
Variables Affecting Resistance to
Extinction 589
Using Extinction Effectively 590
When Not to Use Ext inction 592
Summary 593
25 Differential Reinforcement 595
Differential Reinforcement Defined 596
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative
Behavior (DRA) 596
Differential Reinforcement of Other
Behavior (DRO) 600
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of
Responding (DRL) 606
Summary 611
26 Antecedent Interventions 613
Defining and Classifying Antecedent
Interventions 614
Noncontingent Reinforcement 615
High-Probability Instructional Sequence 619
Functional Communication Training 621
Default Interventions 623
Summary 625
xvi Contents
27 Functional Behavior Assessment 628
Functions of Behavior 628
Role of Functional Behavior Assessment in
Intervention and Prevention 630
Overview of FBA Methods 631
Conducting a Functional Behavior
Assessment 641
Case Examples Illustrating the FBA
Process 643
Summary 652
28 Token Economy, Group Contingencies,
and Contingency Contracting 656
Token Economy 656
Group Contingencies 664
Contingency Contracting 672
Summary 680
29 Self-Management 681
The "Self" as Behavior Controller 681
Self-Management Defined 682
Applications, Advantages, and Benefits of
Self-Management 685
Antecedent-Based Self-Management
Tactics 690
Self-Monitoring 692
Self-Administered Consequences 699
Other Self-Management Tactics 704
Suggestions for Effective Self-Management 707
Behavior Changes Behavior 710
Summary 711
30 Generalization and Maintenance
of Behavior Change 714
Generalized Behavior Change: Definitions and Key
Concepts 715
Planning for Generalized Behavior Change 721
Strategies and Tactics for Promoting Generalized
Behavior Change 723
Modifying and Terminating Successful
Interventions 749
Guiding Principles for Promoting Generalized
Outcomes 751
Summary 753
31 Ethical and Professional Responsibilities
of Applied Behavior Analysts 758
What Is Ethics and Why IS IT Important? 759
Standards of Professional Practice for Applied
Behavior Analysts 764
Ensuring Professional Competence 765
Ethical Issues in Client Services 769
Coordinating with Other Professionals 775
Social Media and New Technologies 776
Advocating for the Client 778
Conflict of Interest 780
Creating a Culture of Ethical Practice 781
Conclusion 782
Summary 782
Epilogue 785
Glossary 786
Bibliography 804
Name Index 865
Subject Index 880
31 August 2022 (05:17) 
Introduction et concepts de base
Nous croyons qu’avant d’apprendre des principes et des procédures spécifiques pour analyser et
changer le comportement, l’étudiant de l’analyse comportementale appliquée devrait être initié aux
fondements historiques et conceptuels de la science. La connaissance de base et l’appréciation des
fondements scientifiques et philosophiques de l’analyse du comportement sont nécessaires à une
compréhension approfondie de la nature, de la portée et du potentiel de la discipline. Nous pensons
également qu’un aperçu préliminaire des concepts de base, des principes et de la terminologie rend
l’étude approfondie de l’analyse comportementale à suivre plus efficace. Les deux chapitres de la
partie 1 appuient ces deux croyances. Le chapitre 1 décrit les racines scientifiques, conceptuelles et
philosophiques de l’analyse comportementale appliquée et identifie les dimensions, les
caractéristiques et les objectifs globaux de la discipline. Le chapitre 2 définit les éléments
fondamentaux du domaine, le comportement et les événements environnementaux antérieurs et
consécutifs qui l’influencent, et introduit des termes et des principes clés qui décrivent les relations
entre ces éléments.
Définition et Cactéristiques de l’Analyse
Comportementale Appliquée
explanatory fiction
functional analysis
functional relation
hypothetical construct
philosophie doubt
radical behaviorism
Termes clés
analyse comportementale appliquée (ABA)
fiction explicative
analyse fonctionnelle relation fonctionnelle
hypothétique construction mentalisme
parcimonie philosophie doute
déterminisme pragmatisme empirisme
comportementalisme radical expérience
réplication analyse expérimentale du
comportement (EAB)
methodological behaviorism science
Behavior Analyst Certification Board
BCBA/BCaBA Task List (5th ed.)
Section 1: Foundations
A. Philosophical Understandings
A-1 ldentify the goals of behavior analysis as a science (i.e., description, prediction, control).
A-2 Explain the philosophical assumptions underlying the science of behavior analysis (e.g., selectionism, determinism,
parsimony, pragmatism).
A-3 Describe and explain behavior from the perspective of radical behaviorism.
A-4 Distinguish among behaviorism, the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and professional
practice guided by the science of behavior analysis.
A-5 Describe and define the dimensions of applied behavior analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley 1968).
<tJ 2017 The Behavior Analyst Certification Bmu.J. Inc.,® (BACB®). Ali rights reserved. A currenl version of this document rnay be found al
Rcqucsts 10 reprint. copy. or dimibute this document and questions about this documem must be submined dircctly 10 the BACB.
[S]ince l was a child 1 always found my biggest reinforcer
was something called 1111derstanding. l liked to know how
things worked. And of ail of zhe things in the world there
are to understand. il became c/ear ro me thal the most
fascinating was what people do. l sta.rted with the usua.l
physical science sutjf. and it was intriguing tome to understand
how radios work, and how electricity works, and
how clocks work, etcetera. Bw when it became clear tome
tlwt we could also leam how people work-notjust biologically,
but behaviorally-1 thought that's the bes/ of al/.
Sure/y. everyone must agree that that's the most fascinating
subject malter. That there could be a science of behavior.
of whar we do. of who we are? How cou Id you resiit that?
-Donald M. Baer in Heward & Wood,
(2003, p. 302)
Applied behavior analysis is a science devoted to understanding
and improving human behavior. Other disciplines
have similar intents. What sets appbcd behavior
analysis apart? The answer lies in its focus, goals, and methods.
Applied behavior analysts focus on behaviors of social
importance, thcy intervcnc with rcsearch-based stratcgies and
tactics to improve the targeted behaviors, and they use scientific
methods-objective description, measurement, and
expcrimentation-to ùemonsu·atc rcliable relations between
their interventions and the bchavioral improvcments. ln short,
applied behavior analysis, or ABA, is a scientific approach for
discovcring environmcntal variables that reliably influence
socially significant behavior and for developing a technology
of behavior change that takes practical advantage of those
Chapter l • Defi nition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis 3
This chapter briefly outlines the history and development
of behavior analysis, discusses the philosophy that underlies the
science, and identifies defining dimensions and characteristics
of applied behavior analysis. Because applied behavior analysis
is first and foremost a science, we begin with an overview of
precepts shared by scientists in all disciplines.
Science is a systematic approach for seeking and organizing
knowledge about the natural world. Before offering a definition
of science, we discuss the purpose of science and the basic
assumptions and attitudes that guide the work of all scientists,
irrespective of their fields of study.
Purpose of Science
The overall goal of science is to achieve a thorough understanding
of the phenomena under study- socially important behavior
change, in the case of applied behavior analysis. Science differs
from other sources of knowledge or ways we obtain knowledge
about the world around us (e.g., contemplation, common sense,
logic, authority figures, religious or spiritual beliefs, political
campaigns, advertisements, testimonials). Science seeks to discover
nature's truths: facts and universal laws that exist and
operate independent of the opinions and beliefs of any person or
group, including the scientist. Therefore, scientific knowledge
must be separated from any personal, political, economic, or
other reasons for which it was sought. Although it is frequently
misused, science is not a tool for validating the cherished or
preferred versions of"the truth" held by any group, corporation,
government, or institution.
Different types of scientific investigations yield knowledge
enabling one or more of three levels of understanding: description,
prediction, and control. Each level of understanding contributes
to the scientific knowledge base of a given field of inquiry.
Systematic observation enhances the understanding of a given
phenomenon by enabling scientists to describe it accurately.
Descriptive knowledge consists of a collection of facts about
the observed events that can be quantified, classified, and examined
for possible relations with other known facts-a necessary
and important activity for any scientific discipline. The knowledge
obtained from descriptive studies often suggests possible
hypotheses or questions for additional research.
The work of John James Audubon, a naturalist and painter
in the early 19th century, provides a classic example of descriptive
science. While observing birds in their natural habitat,
Audubon documented their habits with extensive field notes and
made detailed drawings. He identified 25 new species of birds.
His major work, The Birds of America (Audubon, 1827-1838),
contains 435 hand-colored life-sized prints of birds in their natural
habitat and is considered one of the finest ornithological
works ever completed.
White's (1975) study of classroom teachers' "natural
rates" of approval (verbal praise or encouragement) and disapproval
(criticisms, reproach) is an example of descriptive
research in applied behavior analysis. Observations of 104 classroom
teachers in grades 1 to 12 yielded two major findings:
(a) Rates of teacher praise dropped with each grade level,
and (b) in every grade after second, teachers delivered statements
of disapproval to students at rates exceeding their rates
of praise. The results of this descriptive study led to dozens of
subsequent studies aimed at discovering factors responsible
for the disappointing findings, analyzing the effects of disproportionate
rates of disapproval and praise on student behavior,
and increasing teachers' effective use of praise (e.g., Alber,
Heward, & Hippler, 1999; Duchaine, Jolivette, & Fredrick,
2011; Fullerton, Conroy, & Correa, 2009; Mrachko, Kostewicz,
& Martin, 2017; Niwayama & Tanaka-Matsumi, 2016;
Sutherland, Wehby, & Yoder, 2002).
Predict ion
A second level of scientific understanding occurs when repeated
observations reveal that two events consistently covary with each
other. That is, in the presence of one event (e.g., approaching
winter) another event occurs (or fails to occur) with some specified
probability (e.g., certain birds fly south). When systematic
covariation between two events is found, this relationshiptermed
a correlation-can be used to predict the relative probability
that one event will occur, based on the presence of the
other event. "We obviously cannot intervene or manipulate the
movement of the stars or planets, but by studying their movements
we can gauge the seasons and when we can plant crops to
produce a bountiful harvest" (Moore, 2010, p. 48).
Because no variables are manipulated or controlled by the
researcher, a correlational study cannot demonstrate whether
one of the observed variables is responsible for the changes in
the other variable, and no such relations should be inferred. A
strong correlation exists between hot weather and an increased
incidence of drowning deaths, but we should not assume that a
hot and humid day causes anyone to drown. Hot weather also
correlates with other factors, such as an increased number of
people (both swimmers and nonswimmers) seeking relief in the
water, and many instances of drowning have been found to be a
function of factors such as the use of alcohol or drugs, the relative
swimming skills of the victims, strong riptides, and the
absence of supervision by lifeguards. 1
In addition to their usefulness in aiding prediction, the
findings of correlational studies can suggest the possibility of
causal relations, which can then be explored with experimental
1Spurious correlations result from measures of two randomly chosen variables
closely tracking each other (e.g., rise in annual organic food sales and increased
incidence of autism [Redditor Jasonp55, 2018], per capita margarine consumption
and the divorce rate in Maine [Vigen, 2015]). For more sill y examples, see
Vigen (2015); for detailed explanation of the fallacy, see West, Bergstrom, and
Bergstrom (20 I 0).
4 Part I • Introduction and Basic Concepts
studies. The most common type of correlational study reported
in the applied behavior analysis literature compares the relative
rates or conditional probabilities of two or more observed
(but not manipulated) variables (e.g., Atwater & Morris, 1988;
Symons, Hoch, Dahl, & McComas, 2003; Thompson & Iwata,
2001). For example, McKerchar and Thompson (2004) found
correlations between problem behavior exhibited by 14 preschool
children and the following consequent events: teacher
attention (100% of the children), presentation of some material
or item to the child (79% of the children), and escape from
instructional tasks (33% of the children). The results of this
study not only provide empirical validation for the social consequences
typically used in clinical settings to analyze the variables
maintaining children's problem behavior, but also increase
confidence in the prediction that interventions based on the findings
from such assessments will be relevant to the conditions
that occur naturally in preschool classrooms (see Chapter 27).
In addition, by revealing the high probabilities with which teachers
responded to problem behavior in ways that are likely to
maintain and strengthen it, McKerchar and Thompson's findings
also point to the need to train teachers in more effective ways to
respond to problem behavior.
The ability to predict with a certain degree of confidence
is a valuable and useful result of science; prediction enables
preparation. However, the greatest potential benefits from
science are derived from the third, and highest, level of scientific
understanding--control. Evidence of the kinds of control
that can be derived from scientific findings in the physical and
biological sciences surrounds us in the everyday technologies
we take for granted: pasteurized milk and the refrigerators we
store it in; flu shots and the automobiles we drive to go get
them; pain relievers and the televisions that bombard us with
advertisements and news stories about the drugs.
The scientific "system," like the law, is designed to enable
us to handle a subject matter more efficiently ... When we
have discovered the laws which govern a part of the world
about us, we are then ready to deal effectively with that part
of the world. By predicting the occurrence of an event we
are able to prepare for it. By arranging conditions in ways
specified by the laws of a system, we not only predict, we
control: we "cause" an event to occur or to assume certain
characteristics. (Skinner, 1953, pp. 13-14)
Functional relations, the primary products of basic and
applied research in behavior analysis, provide the kind of scientific
understanding that is most valuable and useful to the development
of a technology for changing behavior. A functional
relation exists when a well-controlled experiment demonstrates
that a specific change in one event (the dependent variable) is
reliably produced by specific manipulations of another event
(the independent variable), and that the change in the dependent
variable was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors
(confounding variables).
Johnston and Pennypacker ( 1980) described functional
relations as "the ultimate product of a natural scientific
investigation of the relation between behavior and its determining
variables" (p. 16).
Such a "co-relation" is expressed as y = f(x ), where x
is the independent variable or argument of the function,
and y is the dependent variable. In order to determine if
an observed relation is truly functional, it is necessary to
demonstrate the operation of the values of x in isolation and
show that they are sufficient for the production of y . . . .
[H]owever, a more powerful relation exists if necessity
can be shown (that y occurs only if x occurs). The most
complete and elegant form of empirical inquiry involves
applying the experimental method to identifying functional
relations. (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993a, p. 239)
The understanding gained by the scientific discovery
of functional relations is the basis of applied technologies in
all fields.
Assumptions and Attitudes of Science
Science is first of all a set of attitudes.
-B. F. Skinner, (1953, p. 12)
The definition of science lies not in test tubes, spectrometers, or
electron accelerators, but in the behavior of scientists. To
begin to understand any science, we need to look past the apparatus
and instrumentation that are most readily apparent and
examine what scientists do. 2 The pursuit of knowledge is properly
called science when it is carried out according to general
methodological precepts and expectations that define science.
All scientists share a fundamental assumption about the nature
of events that are amenable to investigation by science, general
notions about basic strategy, and perspectives on how to view
their findings. These attitudes of science-determinism, empiricism,
experimentation, replication, parsimony, and philosophic
doubt--constitute a set of overriding assumptions and values
that guide the work of all scientists (Whaley & Surratt, 1968).
Science is predicated on the assumption of determinism. All
scientists presume that the universe is a lawful and orderly place
in which all phenomena occur as the result of other events. In
other words, events do not just happen willy-nilly; they are
related in systematic ways to other factors, which are themselves
physical phenomena amenable to scientific investigation.
If the universe were governed by accidentalism, a philosophical
position antithetical to determinism that holds that
events occur by accident or without cause, or by fatalism, the
2Skinner ( 1953) noted that although te lescopes and cyclotrons give us a "dramatic
picture of science in action" (p. 12), and science could not have advanced
very far without them, such devices and apparatus are not science themselves.
"Nor is science to be identified with precise measurement. We can measure
and be mathematical without being scientific at all, just as we may be scientific
without these aids" (p. 12). Scientific instruments bring scientists into greater
contact with their subject matter and, with measurement and mathematics,
enable a more precise description and control of key variables.
Chapter l • Defi nition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis 5
belief that events are predetermined, the scientific discovery
of functional relations and use of those discoveries to improve
things would be impossible.
If we are to use the methods of science in the field of
human affairs, we must assume behavior is lawful and
determined. We must expect to discover what a man does
is the result of specifiable conditions and that once these
conditions have been discovered, we can anticipate and to
some extent determine his actions. (Skinner, 1953, p. 6)
Determinism plays a pivotal dual role in the conduct of
scientific practice: It is at once a philosophical stance that does
not lend itself to proof and the confirmation that is sought by
each experiment. In other words, the scientist first assumes lawfulness
and then proceeds to look for lawful relations (Delprato
& Midgley, 1992).
When you can measure what you are speaking about,
and express it in numbers, you know something about
it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot
express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and
unsatisfactory kind
-Lord Kelvin, (1824-1907)
Scientific knowledge is built on, above all, empiricism-the
practice of objective observation and measurement of the phenomena
of interest. Objectivity in this sense means "independent
of the individual prejudices, tastes, and private opinions of
the scientist. Results of empirical methods are objective in that
they are open to anyone's observation and do not depend on the
subjective belief of the individual scientist" (Zuriff, 1985, p. 9).
In the prescientific era (and in nonscientific and pseudoscientific
activities today) (Nichols, 2017), knowledge was (and
is) the product of contemplation, speculation, personal opinion,
authority, and the "obvious" logic of common sense. The
scientist's empirical attitude, however, demands objective observation
based on thorough description, systematic and repeated
measurement, and precise quantification of the phenomena of
As it is in every scientific field, empiricism is the foremost
rule in behavior analysis. Every effort to understand, predict,
and improve behavior hinges on the behavior analyst's ability
to completely define, systematically observe, and accurately and
reliably measure occurrences and nonoccurrences of the behavior
of interest.
Experimentation is the basic strategy of most sciences. Whaley
and Surratt (1968) used the following anecdote to introduce the
need for experimentation.
A man who lived in a suburban dwelling area was surprised
one evening to see his neighbor bow to the four winds,
chant a strange melody, and dance around his front lawn
beating a small drum. After witnessing the same ritual for
over a month, the man became overwhelmed with curiosity
and decided to look into the matter.
"Why do you go through this same ritual each
evening?" the man asked his neighbor.
"It keeps my house safe from tigers," the neighbor
"Good grief!" the man said. "Don't you know there
isn't a tiger within a thousand miles of here?"
"Yeah," the neighbor smiled. "Sure works, doesn't
it!" (pp. 23-2 to 23-3)
When events are observed to covary or occur in close
temporal sequence, a functional relation may exist, but other
factors may be responsible for the observed values of the
dependent variable. To investigate the possible existence of a
functional relation, an experiment (or better, a series of experiments)
must be performed in which the factor(s) suspected of
having causal status are systematically controlled and manipulated
while the effects on the event under study are carefully
Reliably predicting and controlling any phenomena,
including the presence of tigers in one's backyard, requires identifying
and manipulating the factors that influence those phenomena.
One way that the individual described previously could
use the experimental method to evaluate the effectiveness of his
ritual would be to first move to a neighborhood in which tigers
are regularly observed and then systematically manipulate the
use of his anti-tiger ritual (e.g., 1 week off, 1 week on, 1 week
off, 1 week on) while observing and recording the presence of
tigers under the no-ritual and ritual conditions.
The experimental method is a method for isolating the
relevant variables within a pattern of events ....
[W]hen the experimental method is employed, it is
possible to change one factor at a time (independent
variable) while leaving all other aspects of the situation
the same, and then to observe what effect this change
has on the target behavior (dependent variable). Ideally,
a functional relation may be obtained. Formal techniques
of experimental control are designed to make sure that
the conditions being compared are otherwise the same.
Use of the experimental method serves as a necessary
condition (sine qua non) to distinguish the experimental
analysis of behavior from other methods of investigation.
(Dinsmoor, 2003, p. 152)
Thus, an experiment is a controlled comparison of some
measure of the phenomenon of interest (the dependent variable)
under two or more different conditions in which only
one factor at a time (the independent variable) differs from
one condition to another. Strategies and tactics for conducting
experiments in applied behavior analysis are described in
Chapters 7 through 10.
Most of the studies cited in this text are experiments that
have demonstrated or discovered a functional relation between
a target behavior and one or more environmental variables. Such
studies are said to have achieved a functional analysis. The
term functional analysis has two meanings in contemporary
behavior analysis literature. In its original and most fundamental
usage, functional analysis denotes demonstrations of functional
relations between environmental variables and behavior.
6 Part I • Introduction and Basic Concepts
Schlinger and Normand (2013) reported that Skinner used the
term 36 times in Science and Human Behavior and cited this
The external variables of which behavior is a function provide
for what may be called a causal or fanctional analysis.
We undertake to predict and control the behavior of the
individual organism. This is our "dependent variable"-the
effect for which we are to find the cause. Our "independent
variables"-the causes of behavior-are the external
conditions of which behavior is a function. Relations
between the two-the "cause-and-effect relationships" in
behavior-are the laws of a science. (Skinner, 1953,
p. 35, italics added)
Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1982) introduced
the second and today most widely recognized usage of
functional analysis in their groundbreaking article describing
an experimental methodology for determining environmental
variables and contingencies maintaining problem behavior (see
Chapter 27). In its original meaning, functional analysis provides
the very foundation for an experimental science of
behavior; as a method for assessing the controlling variables
for problem behavior, functional analysis informs the design of
effective treatments.
The results of a single experiment-no matter how well it was
designed and conducted, no matter how clear and impressive the
findings-are never sufficient to earn an accepted place among
the scientific knowledge base of any field. Although the data
from a single experiment have value in their own right and cannot
be discounted, only after an experiment has been replicated
a number of times with the same basic pattern of results are
scientists convinced of the findings.
Replication-repeating of experiments (as well as repeating
independent variable conditions within experiments)"
pervades every nook and cranny of the experimental method"
(Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993a, p. 244). Replication is the
primary method with which scientists determine the reliability
and usefulness of their findings and discover their
mistakes (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980; l 993a; Sidman,
1960). Replication-not the infallibility or inherent honesty
of scientists-is the primary reason science is a self-correcting
enterprise that ultimately gets it right (Skinner, 1953).
How many times must an experiment be repeated with the
same results before the scientific community accepts the findings?
There is no required number of replications, but the greater
the importance of the findings to theory or practice, the greater
the number of replications to be conducted. Chapters 7 through
10 explain the role of replication in behavioral research and
describe replication strategies used by applied behavior analysts.
One dictionary definition of parsimony is great frugality, and in
a special way this connotation accurately describes the behavior
of scientists. As an attitude of science, parsimony requires
that all simple, logical explanations for the phenomenon under
investigation be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually,
before more complex or abstract explanations are considered.
Parsimonious interpretations help scientists assess and fit new
findings within the field's existing knowledge base. A fully parsimonious
interpretation consists only of those elements that are
necessary and sufficient to explain the phenomenon at hand. The
attitude of parsimony is so critical to scientific explanations that
it is sometimes referred to as the Law of Parsimony (Whaley &
Surratt, 1968), a "law" derived from Occam's Razor, credited
to William of Occam (c. 1285-1349), who stated: "One should
not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities
required to explain anything." In other words, given a choice
between two competing and compelling explanations for the
same phenomenon, one should shave off extraneous variables
and choose the simplest explanation, the one that requires the
fewest assumptions.
Philosophic Doubt
The attitude of philosophic doubt requires the scientist to continually
question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact.
Scientific knowledge must always be viewed as tentative.
Scientists must be willing to set aside their most cherished
beliefs and findings and replace them with the knowledge
derived from new discoveries.
Good scientists maintain a healthy level of skepticism.
Although being skeptical of others' research may be easy, a
more difficult but critical characteristic of scientists is that they
remain open to the possibility-as well as look for evidencethat
their own findings or interpretations are wrong. "Science
is a willingness to accept facts even when they are opposed
to wishes" (Skinner, 1953, p. 12). As Oliver Cromwell (1650)
stated in another context: "I beseech you .. . think it possible
you may be mistaken." For the true scientist, "new findings are
not problems; they are opportunities for further investigation
and expanded understanding" (Todd & Morris, 1993, p. 1159).
Practitioners should be as skeptical as researchers. The
skeptical practitioner not only requires scientific evidence before
implementing a new practice, but also evaluates continually its
effectiveness once the practice has been implemented. Practitioners
must be particularly skeptical of extraordinary claims
made for the effectiveness of new theories, therapies, or treatments
(Foxx & Mulick, 2016; Maurice, 2017).
Claims that sound too good to be true usually are.
Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence
(Sagan, 1996; Shermer, 2002). What constitutes
extraordinary evidence? In the strictest sense, and
the sense that should be employed when evaluating
claims of educational effectiveness, evidence is the
outcome of the application of the scientific method to
test the effectiveness of a claim, a theory, or a practice.
The more rigorously the test is conducted, the more
often the test is replicated, the more extensively the test
is corroborated, the more extraordinary the evidence.
Evidence becomes extraordinary when it is extraordinarily
well tested. (Silvestri & Heward, 2016, p. 149)
Chapter I • Definition and Characteristics of Applied Behav ior Ana lysis 7
We end our di scu ssion of philosophic dou bt with two
pi eces of advice, o ne from Carl Sagan a nd one from B. F.
Skinner: "Th e question i s not w he ther we like the conclusion
that emerges out of a train of reasoning, but whether the
conclusion follows from the premise or s tarting po int
and whether th at premise is true" (Sagan, 1996, p. 210).
" Regard no practice as immutable. Change a nd b e read y
to change again. Accept no eterna l verity. Ex periment"
(Skinner, 1979, p. 346).
Other Im portant Attitudes an d Values
The six attitudes of science that we have examined are necessary
features of scie nce a nd prov ide an important context fo r understa
nding a pplied behavior analysis.
However, the behavior of mos t productive a nd successful
scie nti sts is al so characterized by qualities such as thoroughness,
c uriosity, perseverance , diligence, ethics, and honesty. Scientists
acquire these traits because behaving in suc h ways has proven
beneficial to the progress of science.
A Definition of Science
Science has no universally accepted, s ta ndard defin ition.
We offer the fo ll owi ng definition as one that encompasses
the previ o us ly disc ussed purposes and a ttitud es of science,
irrespective of the s ubject matte r. Science is a system a ti c
approach to understanding natural phenomena-as evidenced
by description, predic tion , and control-that relies on determinis
m as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its prime
directi ve, experi mentation as its bas ic strategy, re plication
as its necessary requirement for be lie vab ility, parsimony as
its conservative value, and philosophi c doubt as its g uidin g
The sc ie nce of behavior analysis entails three interrelated
domai ns: ph ilosophy, basic researc h, and applied research.
Behaviorism is the philosophy of the scie nce of be havior, basic
research is th e province of the experimental a nalys is of behavior
(EAB), and developing a technology for improv in g behavior
is the concern of applied behavior analysis CABA). To be fu lly
understood, appli ed behavior analysis mu st be considered in the
context of the philosophy and basic research traditions and
findings from which it evolved and remain s connected today.
This section prov ides an elementary description of the basic
t enet s of behaviorism and outlines some of the ma jor events
th at have m arked the devel opment of be havior anal ysis.3
Table 1.1 l i s t s major books, journal s, a nd professional
3Informa tive and interesting descriptio ns of the hi s to ry of behavior analysis
can be found in Goodall (1972); Guericio (2018); Hackenberg ( 1995); Michael
(2004); Morris, Todd, Midgley, Schneider, and John so n ( 1990); Mountjoy and
Cone ( 1997); Ris ley (2005); Sidman (2002); Skinner ( 1956, 1979); Stokes
(2003); Vargas, Vargas, and Knapp (20 17 ); a nd in a special section of articles in
the Fall 2003 issue of The Behavior Analyst.
organizations th at have contributed to th e advancemen t of
be havio r analysis s in ce the 19 30s.
Watson's Stimulus-Response Behaviori sm
Psychol ogy in th e early 1900s was dominated by the study of
states of consciousness, im ages, and other mental processes.
Intros pection, the ac t of carefully observing one's own conscious
thoug hts and feelings, was a primary me th o d of investigation.
Although the authors of several texts in the first decade
of the 20th century defi ned psychology as th e scien ce of behavior
(see Kazd in , 197 8), John B. Watson is widely recognized as
the spokes man for a ne w direction in the field of psychology. In
his influential article " Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It,"
W atson (1913) wrote:
Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective
experimental branc h of natural science. Its theoretical goal
is the prediction a nd control of b ehavior. Introspectio n
forms no essential part of its me thods, nor is the scientific
value of its data dependent upon th e readiness with which
th ey lend th emselves to inte rpretation in terms of consciousness.
(p. 158)
Watson argued that the prope r subject m atter for
psychology was not states of mind or mental processes but
o bservable be havio r. Further, the objective study of behavior
as a natural science sho uld con sist of direct observatio n
of the re la tions hips between environmental stimu li (S ) a nd
the responses (R ) they evoke. Watsonian behaviorism became
known as s timulus-respon se (S-R) psychology. Although
scientific evidence was insufficient to support S-R psych ology
as a workable expl a nation for most behavior, Watson was
confident that hi s new behaviorism would lead to the prediction
and control of huma n behavior and t hat it wo uld all ow
practitione rs to improve performance in areas suc h as education,
business, a nd law. Wa t son (1924) ma de bold claims
concerning hum an behav io r, as illustrated in thi s fa m o u s
quo tation:
Give me a dozen hea lthy infants, well-formed, and my
own specified wo rld to bring them up in and I'll guaran tee
to take a ny one at random and train him to become any
type of spec iali st I might select-doctor, lawyer, artist ,
merchant-chief and , yes, even beggar-man and thief,
regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies , abi lities,
vocations, and race of hi s ances tors. I am go ing beyond
my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the
co ntrary and they have been doing it for many thousands
of years . (p. 104)
It is unfortun ate that s uch extraordinary cla im s were
made, exaggerating the ability to predict and control huma n
behavior beyo nd the scie ntifi c knowledge availa bl e. The quotation
just cited has been used to discredit Watson and continues
to be used to discredit behaviorism in general, even though the
behav iori sm that und erlies contemporary behavior a na lysi s is
fundamentally different from the S- R paradigm. Nevertheless,
Watson 's contributions were of great signifi cance: He made a
8 Part I • Introduction and Basic Concepts
TABLE 1.1 Books, Journals, and Organizations That Have Played a Major Role in the Development
and Dissemination of Behavior Analysis
Decade Books Journals Organizations
1930s The Behavior of Organisms-Skinner (1938) The Psychological Record (1937)
1940s Walden Two-Skinner (1948)
1950s Principles of Psychology-Keller and Journal of the Experimental Society for the Experimental Analysis
Schoenfeld (1950) Analysis of Behavior (1958) of Behavior (SEAB) (1957)
Science and Human Behavior-
Skinner (1953)
Schedules of Reinforcement-Ferster and
Skinner (1957)
Verbal Behavior-Skinner (1957)
1960s Tactics of Scientific Research- Journal of Applied Behavior American Psychological Association's
Sidman (1960) Analysis (1968) Division 25 Experimental Analysis of
Behavior (1964)
Child Development, Vols. I & //-Bijou and Experimental Analysis of Behaviour
Baer (1961, 1965) Group (UK) (1965)
The Analysis of Behavior-Holland and
Skinner (1961)
Research in Behavior Modification-Krasner
and Ullmann (1965)
Operant Behavior: Areas of Research and
Application-Honig (1966)
The Analysis of Human Operant Behavior-
Reese ( 1 966)
Principles of Behavioral Analysis-
Millenson (1967)
Behavior Principles-Ferster and Perrott
Contingencies of Reinforcement:
A Theoretical Analysis-Skinner (1969)
1970s Beyond Freedom and Dignity- Behaviorism (1972) (became Norwegian Associat ion for Behavior
Skinner (1971) Behavior and Philosophy Analysis (1973)
in 1990)
Elementary Principles of Behavior- Revista Mexicana de Analisis Midwestern Association for Behavior
Whaley and Malott(1971) de la Conducta (1975) Analysis (MABA) (1974)
About Behaviorism-Skinner (1974) Behavioural Processes (1976) Mexican Society of Behavior Analysis
Single Case Experimental Designs-Hersen Behavior Modification (1 977) Association for Behavior Analys is
and Barlow (1976) (formerly, MABA) (1978)
Applying Behavior-Analysis Procedures with Journal of Organizational
Children and Youth-Sulzer-Azaroff and Behavior Management (1977)
Mayer (1977)
Learning-Catania (1979) Education & Treatment of
Children (1 977)
The Behavior Analyst (1978)
1980s Strategies and Tactics of Human Behavioral Journal of Precision Teaching Society for the Advancement of
Research-Johnston and Pennypacker and Celeration (formerly, Journal Behavior Analysis (1980)
(1980) of Precision Teaching) (1980)
Behaviorism: A Conceptual Reconstruction- Analysis of Verbal Behavior
Zuriff (1985) (1982)
Recent Issues in the Analysis of Behavior- Behavioral Interventions (1986) Cambridge Center for Behavioral
Skinner (1989) Studies (1981)
Concepts and Principles of Behavior
Analysis-Michael (1993)
Understanding Behaviorism: Science,
Behavior, and Culture-Baum (1994)
Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the
Science-Chiesa (1994)
Equivalence Relations and BehaviorSidman
Behavior Analysis and Learning-Pierce and
Epling (1995)
Functional Analysis of Problem BehaviorRepp
and Horner (1999)
Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian
Account of Human Language and
Cognition-Hayes, Barnes-Holmes, and
Roche (2001)
Conceptual Foundations of Radical
Behaviorism-Moore (2008)
Handbook of Applied Behavior AnalysisFisher,
Piazza, and Roane (2011 )
The Science of Consequences-Schneider
APA Handbook of Behavior AnalysisMadden
Radical Behaviorism for ABA PractitionersJohnston
The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Operant
and Classical Conditioning-Mcsweeney
and Murphy (2014)
The Nurture Effect: How the Science of
Human Behavior Can Improve Our Lives &
Our World-Biglan (2015)
Chapter l • Defi nition and Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis 9
Japanese Journal of Behavior
Analysis (1986)
Behavior Analysis Digest (1989)
Behavioural Pharmacology
Behavior and Social Issues
Journal of Behavioral Education
Journal of Positive Behavior
Interventions (1999)
The Behavior Analyst Today
European Journal of Behavior
Analysis (2000)
Behavioral Development Bulletin
Journal of Early and Intensive
Behavior Intervention (2004)
Brazilian Journal of Behavior
Analysis (2005)
International Journal of
Behavioral Consultation and
Therapy (2005)
Behavior Analysis in Practice
Japanese Association for Behavior
Analysis (1983)
Accreditation of Training Programs
in Behavior Analys is (Associat ion for
Behavior Analys is) (1 993)
Behavior Analyst Certif ication Board
(BACB) (1998)
Council of Directors of Graduate
Programs in Behavior Analysis
(Association for Behavior Analysis)
First Board Certified Behavior
Analysts (BCBA) credentialed by the
BACB (1999)
European Association for Behaviour
Analysis (2002)
Associat ion for Professional Behavior
Analysts (APBA) (2007)
Associat ion for Behavior Analysis
International (ABAI) (formerly, ABA)
First Registered Behavior Technician
(RBT) credent ialed by the BACB
Journal of Contextual Behavioral BACB credent ials the 30,000th
Science (2012) behavior analyst (2018)
Operants (2014)
Behavior Analysis: Research and
Practice (formerly, The Behavior
Analyst Today (2015)
Perspectives on Behavior Science
(formerly, The Behavior Analyst)
Membership in ABAI and affiliate
chapters surpasses 26,000 in 63
countries (2018)
Note: Books are listed by initial year of publication. Some titles are avai lable in more recent editions.
31 August 2022 (05:26) 
Fast cash offer for you today at just 2% interest rate, both long and short term cash of all amounts and currencies, no collateral required. contact (Whats App) number:+917310847059 contact email id :
Mr. Sumiti
14 September 2022 (16:48) 

Yorum bırakmak için lütfen giriş yapın veya kaydolun
Yorum bırakabilir ve deneyiminizi paylaşabilirsiniz. Geri bildiriminiz ilerlememize yardımcı olur.